Introduction

As a lover of early and mid-20th century British detective fiction, in particular Agatha Christie, I have often tried to imagine the food and drink referred to in my bedtime reading which normally comprises Agatha's novels. Even when I am feeling lazy or tired, I listen to her audio books.

The recipes here are my interpretations of meals, snacks and drinks that I have encountered during my reading and I am attempting to reproduce these as I imagine they were made during the decade in which the relevant novel was set. Although the majority of the posts are recipes, I will also include descriptions of those ingredients which are not in common use.

Each recipe is written for conventional cooking methods using traditional ingredients. It is also accompanied by a 21st century 'equivalent', including adaptions using more modern equipment such as the Thermomix or techniques such as sous vide. I just love my gadgets! Also I feel that food should have 'attitude' in that it must make you want to eat it again. It has to be full of flavour, which in one sense may seem to contradict the general consensus towards Brtish food at least, during the period in question. This is the challenge I have set myself - to give you traditional
recipes upon which you can build, and at the same time add a suggested modern equivalent which you might like to try anyway.



Wednesday, 24 August 2016

THE ADVENTURE OF THE CLAPHAM COOK

DE - Köchin gesucht
ES - La aventura de la cocinera
FR - L'Aventure de la cuisinière de Clapham
GR –
HU - A claphami szakácsnő kalandja
IT - L'avventura della cuoca di Clapham
PL – Przygoda kucharki z Clapham
PT - A Aventura da Cozinheira de Clapham
RO - Aventura Bucătarului Clapham
RU - Исчезновение Клэпемской кухарки
TR – Clapham Cook’un Macerası

PUBLICATION AND AUDIO-VISUAL HISTORY

Magazines:
The Sketch - 14 Nov 1923, Issue 1607 - UK

Short story collections:
Poirot’s Early Cases, Sep 1974 – UK
The Under Dog and Other Stories, 1951 – USA

Television:

Agatha Christie's Poirot (Season 1, Episode 1), 1989 – UK

THE UNDER DOG AND OTHER STORIES FIRST US EDITION (1951)


REFERENCES TO FOOD IN THE STORY

1) Annie was the parlourmaid in the household of Mr & Mrs Todd and was asked by Poirot whether she could remember the last thing said by the missing cook before her disappearance.  'Yes, I can. "If there's any stewed peaches over from the dining room," she says, "we'll have them for supper, and a bit of bacon and some fried potatoes."  Mad over stewed peaches she was.'  This remark indicated to Poirot that the cook had every intention of returning to the house that night.

2) Although it is implied that Mrs Todd was hard to please, when asked about her mistress, Annie said, "But the food's good,  Plenty of it, and no stinting.  Something hot for supper ... and as much frying fat as you like."

REFERENCES TO FOOD IN THE TELEVISION EPISODE

1) It was stated that the stewed peaches came with cream.

2) Mr Todd was seen helping himself to whisky from a decanter, but did not offer one to Poirot or Hastings, hinting at his parsimony.  In the story, it was he who put a halt on Poirot's investigation of the case to save money.


2014 US EDITION (CAPLE BOOKS CLASSIC SHORT STORIES) 


LINKS TO THE RECIPES

Bacon and fried potatoes

Stewed peaches and cream

Saturday, 9 January 2016

THE ADVENTURE OF THE ITALIAN NOBLEMAN

DE - Das Abenteuer des italienischen Edelmannes
ES - La aventura del noble italiano
FR - Le crime de Regent's Court
GR - Η περιπέτεια του Ιταλού ευγενή
HU - Az olasz gróf esete
IT - La disavventura di un nobile italiano
PL – Sprawa wloskiego arystokraty
PT - A aventura do nobre italiano
RU - Случай с итальянским вельможей
TR - Italyan Asilzadesinin Macerası

PUBLICATION AND AUDIO-VISUAL HISTORY

Magazines:
The Sketch – 24 Oct 1923, Issue 1604 – UK
Blue Book Magazine, Dec 1924, Vol. 40, No. 2 – USA (as ‘The Italian Nobleman’) - USA

Short story collections:
Poirot Investigates, 1924 – UK
Poirot Investigates, 1925 – USA

Television:
Agatha Christie's Poirot (Season 5, Episode 3), 1993 – UK

THE BLUE BOOK MAGAZINE DECEMBER 1924

REFERENCES TO FOOD IN THE STORY

1) 'The Adventure of the Italian Nobleman’ is another story where food and drink is a useful aid to Poirot in his solving of a mystery.  In this case it is just one meal, prepared by the chef in the kitchens of a block of London service flats where the victim, Count Foscatini, lives.  Upon discovery of the body, Poirot questions the chef who tells him that ‘The order was ... Soup julienne, filet de sole normande, tournedos of beef, and a rice soufflé.’  There is also a bowl of fruit in the room which appears to be untouched because the three dessert plates were clean.

2) Graves, the Count’s valet states that he placed ‘port on the table and brought in the coffee’ before being told that he could take the rest of the evening off from his duties.  The coffee is later described by Poirot as being ‘very black’.

REFERENCES TO FOOD IN THE TELEVISION EPISODE

Unusually, the food and drinks referred to in the story, remain unchanged in the episode.  The chef’s sense of hygiene leaves a lot to be desired though!


2016 EDITION CONTAINING DRAWINGS OF 
SUCHET AND FRASER AS POIROT AND HASTINGS

LINKS TO THE RECIPES

Soup Julienne
Dinner Rolls (not mentioned, but assumed to be served with the soup)

Fillet of Sole Normande

Tournedos of Beef

Rice Soufflé

Fruit

Black coffee

Port

Monday, 14 December 2015

THERMOMIX

The Thermomix is not widely seen in UK households, but in Spain, Italy and Australia it is extremely popular. You only need to look at a Spanish recipe website to see that instructions are often given for the Thermomix as well as the conventional cooking method. I have seen the Thermomix described as the 'complete kitchen in one' and is ideal if you have a small kitchen or for students.

So what exactly is a Thermomix? It is a super fast food blender and processor that also weighs, cooks, simmers and steams. It has just one bowl and a blade which:

  • Weighs - with built-in electronic scales
  • Grates –Cheese, chocolate, Parmesan
  • Mills – Rice, grains and pulses to flour
  • Purées - vegetables, fruits, baby food
  • Grinds - coffee beans, sugar to icing sugar, wet or dry spices
  • Blends - soups, smoothies, milkshakes and sauces
  • Cooks, boils & simmers - soups, sauces, preserves, pulses, complete meals
  • Steams - vegetables, meat, fish, fruits, rice, pasta
  • Crushes - ice, cocktails, ice creams, sorbet
  • Whisks - egg whites, cappuccino-style foam on soups and milk, zabaglione
  • Emulsifies - salad dressings, mayonnaise, batters, cream
  • Kneads - bread dough, pizza dough, pasta dough, pastry, scones
  • Chops & minces - nuts, herbs, vegetables, salads, meats
  • Heats baby food to 37°C
  • Holds chocolate at 37°C
  • Cleans itself
THERMOMIXES 
THE NEWER TM5 TO THE LEFT
AND THE TM31 TO THE RIGHT


See Vorwerk Thermomix UK for further information and details of where you can go to see a demonstration of it in action.

Popular with professional chefs, the Thermomix, in the long term, will save you money on both food and fuel. However, it is not cheap at around £925 (1,015 Euros) - December 2015 - so just be nice to your loved ones and see if they will club together to get you one for your birthday or Christmas. As the current model, the TM5 only came out in September 2014, you may be able to obtain the previous one (the TM31) second hand, as some people will be selling theirs if they upgrade. Others though, including yours truly, will be hanging on to their TM31 as it is still a great machine

SOUS VIDE SUPREME

The Sous Vide Supreme is a water bath designed for domestic kitchens and holds up to 11.2 litres of water.  There is also a more compact version called a Sous Vide Supreme Demi which holds up to 8.7 litres of water.  It will keep the water at a constant temperature to within 0.5 of a degree C, ensuring even cooking of your food.  You will also need to buy a vacuum sealer and appropriate food grade plastic pouches.  The food is sealed in the pouches first, together with any herbs, spices or seasonings and then added to the pre-heated water bath.  It is then left to cook very slowly until done.  

SOUS VIDE SUPREME (11.2 LITRES)

However, the cooking times vary according to the ingredients (in the same way as conventional cooking), but you have a much wider time range in which it can be left.  An example would be chicken breasts 25mm thick, cooked at 63.5°C, which will be ready in 1 hour, but can be left for up to 4.  It will not overcook because it is kept at a constant temperature.  The food will also cook evenly throughout, so if for example, you want a medium-rare steak, it will be medium-rare all the way through and not just towards the centre.

Other models of water bath are also available and you can also but temperature controllers to convert your existing equipment such as saucepans, rice cookers, slow cookers etc. for sous vide cooking.

Saturday, 12 December 2015

THICK TOMATO SOUP

The only soup mentioned by name in 'Four and Twenty Blackbirds' was Mulligatawny, although an unspecified thick soup was also referred to.  In the 1989 TV episode however, it became Thick Tomato Soup and because this was a standard soup of the period, it is probable that it would have been on the menu of a very British restaurant such as the Gallant Endeavour.


The earliest extant recipe for tomato soup, appears to be from the USA and was published in The Appledore Cook Book by Maria Paloa (1872), although tomatoes had been used in older soup recipes such as Eliza Acton's Mulligatawny in her Modern Cookery for Private Families (1845).  Campbell's developed a condensed tomato soup in 1897 and it seems that from this time, the soup gradually became more popular.  'Four and Twenty Blackbirds' was first published in 1926 and I have lightly adapted a recipe from the late 1920s, although there appears to be little difference in British recipes for at least the first three-quarters of the 20th century.  It was interesting to compare that of Escoffier in Ma Cuisine (1934) and recipes in basic cookery books that you were given when you bought a new domestic cooker - they were almost identical.  Subsequent recipes in The Constance Spry Cookery Book (1956) and later editions of Good Housekeeping also show little variation.

As far as ingredients are concerned, the main difference between the recipes is what was used as a thickener.  Some recommended cornflour whilst others suggested rice or sago.  I used cornflour, but you can substitute that with one of the other ingredients if you wish.  In some instances we were advised to use cochineal (presumably to make the soup look redder should the tomatoes be somewhat under-ripe) and if you really want to add a few drops of that or other red food colouring, then please do so.  

This takes us to the subject of tomatoes, which really ought be nice and ripe - a rarity amongst shop bought ones.  If you are lucky enough to be able to grow your own or buy from a local nursery then fine.  However, if you are not that fortunate or want to make tomato soup out of season, then I really recommend that you use good quality tinned ones.  Tinned tomatoes have been available since the end of the 19th century and it is likely that they were used for soup since that time in the absence of suitable fresh ones.  Nowadays in the UK, we can get the Italian San Marzano tomatoes in tins.  They are ideal for the following recipes as they are fleshier and less acidic than standard tinned tomatoes, although they are comparatively expensive.


There are two recipes here.  The first is pretty much a standard one that appears in recipe books throughout the 20th century, with the three basic aromatics, plus bacon, herbs, tomatoes and stock.  The second recipe has more depth of flavour because the aromatics are roasted first, has added garlic and a couple of extra ingredients.  It is also mainly cooked in a Thermomix, but you can make it conventionally by following the instructions for the tradtional method after you have roasted the vegetables.  


For vegetarians - use butter and vegetable stock and omit the bacon

RECIPE FOR THICK TOMATO SOUP (TRADITIONAL)

THICK TOMATO SOUP (TRADITIONAL)

Ingredients:
  • 30g (1 oz) butter, dripping or lard
  • 1 Spanish onion, peeled and coarsely diced
  • 1 medium carrot, scraped and diced
  • 2-3 stalks celery, diced
  • 60g (2 oz) streaky bacon, diced
  • A pinch of sugar or more (optional but will help to caramelise the vegetables and reduce acidity)
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 1 sprig of thyme
  • 1 sprig of parsley
  • 2 x 400g (14 oz) tins of whole tomatoes
  • 900mls (1.5 pints) chicken, ham or vegetable stock
  • 2 teaspoons cornflour
Method:
  1. Melt the butter, dripping or lard in a heavy bottomed pan over a low heat.
  2. Add the vegetables and bacon and saute until the onions are slightly softened.
  3. Stir in the sugar and cook until the vegetables are beginning to caramelise.
  4. Let it take as long as it needs to do this.
  5. Add the herbs, tomatoes and stock and simmer, covered, for 1-2 hours.
  6. Remove and discard the herbs, rub the soup through a fine sieve and return to the pan.
  7. Take a little of the stock and mix with the cornflour.
  8. Return to the pan and bring to a gentle boil.
  9. Cook for a few minutes and season to taste.
  10. Garnish with croutons and/or a little chopped parsley.


RECIPE FOR THICK TOMATO SOUP (THERMOMIX TM31 AND TM5)

Ingredients:
  • Olive oil
  • Salt - I used Pink Himalayan Rock Salt
  • 1 Spanish onion, peeled and quartered
  • 1 large carrot, scraped and chopped into four pieces
  • 3 stalks celery, with leaves if possible, chopped into three pieces
  • Several cloves garlic, peeled and left whole
  • 60g (2 oz) streaky bacon or pancetta, diced
  • A teaspoon of sugar (optional but will help to reduce acidity)
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 1 sprig of thyme
  • 1 sprig of parsley
  • 2 x 400g (14 oz) tins of whole tomatoes (or 800g fresh, ripe tomatoes)
  • 2 tbsps dark soy sauce
  • 2 tbsps balsamic vinegar
  • Approximately 900g (2lbs) chicken, ham or vegetable stock
  • 3 teaspoons cornflour
  • Yoghurt or cream for swirling
Method:
  1. In a small roasting tin, pour enough oil to cover the bottom and add a pinch of salt.
  2. Place in the oven and pre-heat to the highest temperature.
  3. When the oven has reached that temperature, add the vegetables, bacon and the garlic to the tin and return to the oven.
  4. Reduce the temperature to 180°C / 350°C / Gas 4 / Fan 160°C.
  5. Roast, turning occasionally, until slightly caramelised.  You will need to remove them as and when they are ready, so check about every 15 minutes.
  6. Transfer the vegetables to the Thermomix bowl 10 seconds / Speed 5.
  7. Add the sugar, herbs, tomatoes, soy sauce, balsamic vinegar, and stock to the 2 litre mark (about 900 grams / 2lbs) 11 mins / Temp Varoma / Speed Spoon.
  8. Then 80 mins / 90°C / Speed Spoon.
  9. Remove the herbs.
  10. Slake the cornflour in a little of the soup and return to the bowl 1 minute / Speed 5-7-9.
  11. Then 3 minutes / Temp Varoma / Speed 1.
  12. Cook for a further 40 minutes / 100°C / Speed 1 / MC Off, but place internal steaming basket on lid.
  13. Allow to cool slightly then blend 2 minutes / Speed 5-7-9.
  14. Re-heat to 100°C and then serve with some croutons and a swirl of yoghurt or cream.

Tuesday, 8 December 2015

FOUR AND TWENTY BLACKBIRDS

DE - Vierundzwanzig Schwarzdrosseln
ES - La Tarta de Zarzamoras
FR - Le Mort Avait les Dents Blanches
GR - Τέσσερα και είκοσι κοτσύφια
HU - A Szedertorta
IT - La Torta di More (Legame di Sangue)
PL - Dwadzieścia Cztery kosy
PT - O Caso das Amoras Pretas
RU - Двадцать четыре чёрных дрозда
TR - Yirmi Dört Karakuş

PUBLICATION AND AUDIO-VISUAL HISTORY

Magazines (as ‘Poirot and the Regular Customer’):
The Mystery Magazine, 1926 - USA
Strand Magazine, 1941– UK

Short story collections:
Three Blind Mice and Other Stories, 1950 – USA
The Adventure of the Christmas Pudding and a Selection of Entrées, 1960 – UK

Television:
Agatha Christie's Poirot (Season 1, Episode 4), 1989 – UK

STRAND MAGAZINE MARCH 1941

REFERENCES TO FOOD IN THE STORY

1) 'Four and Twenty Blackbirds' possibly contains more references to food than any other of Christie’s stories and it is instrumental in Poirot’s discovery of the solution to the mystery. It begins in a Chelsea restaurant called the Gallant Endeavour which was popular with artists.  Poirot is dining with a friend who has, unlike Poirot, a liking for plain English food "Give me an honest fillet of sole and no messy sauce over it." and appears to be a regular customer.  The waitress, who knows his personal likes, makes a suggestion from the menu, "... turkey stuffed with chestnuts ... ever such a nice Stilton we've got!  Will you have soup first or fish?"  Poirot is happy for his friend to choose for him.

2) When the waitress brings the turkey, the friend refers to another regular customer who is also sat in the restaurant.  The waitress remarks that whilst he normally eats there on Tuesdays and Thursdays, he had visited on Monday of the previous week.  She also states that not only did he come on a different day, he also placed a different order to normal – "He could never bear suet pudding or blackberries and I've never known him take thick soup, but on that Monday night he ordered thick tomato soup, beefsteak and kidney pudding and blackberry tart!", all items that he disliked and had never previously requested.

3) Three weeks later, Poirot bumps into his friend by chance and is told that the regular customer had died, which arouses his interest.  After further enquiries Poirot discovers that the man, on the evening of his death, had dined at the Gallant Endeavour "... it was mulligatawny soup ... and beefsteak pudding ... and blackberry and apple pie and cheese. "  Whilst questioning the waitress, Poirot "ate his filleted sole".  Finally at the end of the story, Poirot is himself back in the restaurant with his friend where they apparently order blackberry and apple tart, which is sent back "Take it away ... Bring me a small helping of sago pudding."


TEXT OF 'FOUR AND TWENTY BLACKBIRDS'
FROM THE 1ST EDITION OF
 'THE ADVENTURE OF THE CHRISTMAS PUDDING' (1960)


REFERENCES TO FOOD IN THE TELEVISION EPISODE

1) The fish is specifically referred to as Fillet of Sole

2) It is Blackberry Crumble rather than Blackberry Tart

3) Rabbit Liège style is a meal that Poirot cooks for Hastings in his flat and he tells us that it is his mother’s recipe

LINKS TO THE RECIPES

Thick Tomato Soup - traditional and Thermomix
Mulligatawny Soup
Dinner Rolls (not mentioned, but assumed to be served with the soup)

Fillet of Sole

Roast turkey with Chestnut Stuffing
Steak and Kidney Pudding
Rabbit Liège Style

Blackberry crumble
Blackberry tart
Blackberry and apple pie
Custard (not mentioned, but assumed to be served with the blackberry dishes)
Sago pudding

Stilton 
Water Biscuits (not mentioned, but assumed to be served with the cheese)